Anatomical landmarks are defined as biologically meaningful loci that can be unambiguously defined and repeatedly located with a high degree of accuracy and precision. The relative location of landmarks provides a spatial map of the relative location of the features that the landmarks represent. Landmark data are useful because there now exist a multitude of methods for the statistical analysis of form using landmark data, but also because more traditional measures like linear distances and angles can be calculated from the landmark data. Traditional anatomical landmarks include foramina for neurovascular bundles, the intersection of sutures and bony processes. Additional landmarks can be defined on the basis of biological knowledge and be used to help identify features that have direct bearing on research questions.

Our lab has spent much time and effort identifying landmarks and conducting measurement error studies on their collection directly from specimens using 3D digitizers, from 3D computed tomographic images, from whole brain magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomographic images, and micro magnetic resonance images, as well as 3D photogrammatic images.

This page provides a summary of some of this work. Interested readers should also consult publications from the lab.

Landmark List

Click on the links below to view anatomical landmark sets commonly used in the Richtsmeier Lab.