The resources on this site are provided here as a means assist in the dissemination of scholarly works and technical methods on a noncommercial basis. Copyright and all rights therein are maintained by the authors or by other copyright holders, notwithstanding that they have offered their works here electronically. It is understood that all persons copying this information will adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author’s copyright. These works may not be re-posted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

eMoss ( is an online tool constructed in collaboration with the lab of James Sharpe, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Barcelona and freely available for download from the Sharpe lab. eMOSS generates estimates of the relative ages of mice embryos aged between embryonic day 9 through embryonic day 15 (E9-E16) using the two dimensional outline of the embryo’s hindlimb. The system enables users to sort specimens within a litter based upon their relative levels of development and use this relative age variation to contextualize experimental results. Users simply upload a jpeg image of an embryo’s hindlimb, trace the outline using the tools embedded in the website, and the site generates a point estimate of the relative age of the embryo, as well as a graphical representation of the fit of the outline to the reference shape, the age range, and an error estimate.

Anatomical landmarks are defined as biologically meaningful loci that can be unambiguously defined and repeatedly located with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Follow the above link for more information.

View Landmarks

The Purple Book is “An invariant approach to statistical analysis of shapes.” By S. Lele and J. Richtsmeier. Follow the link for the preface, book reviews, errata, and data sets provided as a supplement to the publication.

EDMA (Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis) software allows for quantitative 2D or 3D analysis of anatomical landmarks between groups at a single point in time or between time points for the study of growth. The purple book presents the mathematical and biological basis for the application of this method.

FIESCA (Finite Element Scaling Analysis) is a deformation technique that can be used to determine the difference between forms. Follow the link for more information.

View more information on the courses Dr. Richtsmeier teaches, class syllabi, and supplemental course information. See the website for Department of Anthropology at Penn State University for more information on additional courses offered by Anthropology faculty.

Building Bones: Bone formation and development in anthropology

Percival, CJ and JT Richtsmeier (Eds) 2017

Cambridge Univ Press 320 pgs. ISBN: 9781316388907