Harmon, D.J., Attardi, S.M., Barremkala, M., Bentley, D.C., Brown, K.M., Dennis, J.F., Goldman, H.M., Harrell, K.M., Klein, B.A., Ramnanan, C.J., Richtsmeier, J.T. and Farkas, G.J. (2021), An Analysis of Anatomy Education Before and During Covid19: MayAugust 2020. Anat Sci Educ.

Pitirri, MK and JT Richtsmeier (Eds) 2021 Evolutionary Cell Processes in Primates Volume 1: bone, brains, and muscle, in press (expected publication date August 2021).

Pitirri, MK and JT Richtsmeier (Eds) 2021 Evolutionary Cell Processes in Primates Volume 2: Genes, skin, energetics, breathing, and feeding, in press (expected publication date August 2021).


Pitirri, M. K., Kawasaki, K., Richtsmeier, J. T., 2020. It takes two: Building the vertebrate skull from chondrocranium and dermatocranium. Vertebrate Zoology, 70(4): 587-600.

Kazuki, Y, FJ Gao, Y Li, AJ Moyer, B Devenney, K Hiramatsu, S Miyagawa-Tomita, S Abe, K Kazuki, N Kajitani, N Uno, S Takehara, M Takiguchi, M Yamakawa, A Hasegawa, R Shimizu, S Matsukura, N Noda, N Ogonuki, K Inoue, S Matoba, A Ogura, L . Florea, A Savonenko, M Xiao, D Wu, DAS Batista, J Yang , Z Qiu, N Singh, JT Richtsmeier, T Takeuchi, M Oshimura, RH Reeves, 2020. A non-mosaic transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome carrying the long arm of human chromosome 21. eLife 2020, 9:e56223 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.56223.

Zheng, H, S.M. Perrine, M.K. Pitirri, K. Kawasaki, C. Wang, J. Richtsmeier, D.Z. Chen, 2020. Cartilage segmentation in high-resolution 3D micro-CT images via uncertainty-guided self-training with very sparse annotation. to be published in the Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI), Lima, Peru, October 4-8.

Dias, MS, T Samson, EB Rizk, LS Governale, JT Richtsmeier, and Section on Neurological Surgery, Section on Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 2020. Identifying the Misshapen Head: Craniosynostosis and Related Disorders. Pediatrics September 2020, 146 (3) e2020015511; DOI:

Motch Perrine, S.M., Wu, M., Holmes, G., Bjork, B.C., Jabs, E.W., Richtsmeier, J.T., 2020. Phenotypes, Developmental Basis, and Genetics of Pierre Robin Complex. J. Dev. Biol. 2020, 8, 30.


Dolack, ME, C Lee, Y Ru, A Marghoub, JT Richtsmeier, EW Jabs, M Moazen, DA Garzón-Alvarado, RH Kraft 2019 Computational morphogenesis of embryonic bone development: past, present, and future. In, GL Niebur, ed., Mechanobiology: from molecular sensing to disease. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-817931-4.00011-X

Durham, E, Howie, NR, Larson, N, LaRue, A, Cray J 2019 Pharmacological exposures may precipitate craniosynostosis through targeted stem cell depletionStem Cell Research

Sewda, A, SR White, M Erazo, K Hao, G García-Fructuoso, I Fernández-Rodriguez, Y Heuzé, JT Richtsmeier, PA Romitti, B Reva, EW Jabs, I Peter 2019 Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies novel coding variants in patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosisPediatric Research 6(85):463-468. PMC6398438

Motch Perrine, SM, Wu, M, Stephens, NB, Kriti, D, van Bakel, H, Wang Jabs, E, Richtsmeier, JT 2019 Mandibular dysmorphology due to abnormal embryonic osteogenesis in FGFR2-related craniosynostosis miceDisease Models & Mechanisms

Lee, C, JT Richtsmeier, R Kraft 2019 A coupled reaction-diffusion-strain model predicts cranial vault formation in development and diseaseBiomech model mechanobiol NIHMSID: 1019092. Abstract 

Lesciotto, KM, Richtsmeier, JT 2019 Craniofacial skeletal response to encephalization: How do we know what we think we know? Amer J Phys Anthropol. 168(S67):27-46.

Lesciotto KM, Motch Perrine SM, Kawasaki M, Stecko T, Ryan TM, Kawasaki K, Richtsmeier JT 2019 Phosphotungstic acid-enhanced microCT: Optimized protocols for embryonic and early postnatal mice. Developmental Dynamics 249(4): 573-585, PMC7125040 [with cover illustration]

Richtsmeier, JT and KM Lesciotto 2019 From phenotype to genotype and back again (Du génotype au phénotype et vice versa). BMSAP,


Holmes, G, C O’Rourke, SM Motch Perrine, H van Bakel, JT Richtsmeier, EW Jabs 2018 Midface and upper airway dysgenesis in FGFR2-craniosynostosis involves multiple tissue-specific and cell cycle effects. Development 2018 Oct 5;145(19). PMCID: PMC6198473

Sewda, A, SR White, M Erazo, K Hao, G García-Fructuoso, I Fernández-Rodriguez, Y Heuzé, JT Richtsmeier, PA Romitti, B Reva, EW Jabs, I Peter 2018 Targeted next-generation sequencing identifies novel coding variants in patients with nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (in press, Pediatric Research)

Flaherty, KV, and JT Richtsmeier 2018 It’s about time: Ossification center formation in C57BL/6 mice from E12-E16. J. Dev. Biol., 6, 31; doi:10.3390/jdb6040031, PMID: 30558321.

Richtsmeier, JT 2018 A century of development. Amer J Phys. Anthropol. 165:726740;

Musy, M, K Flaherty, J Raspopovich, A Robert, JT Richtsmeier, J Sharpe 2018 A quantitative method for staging mouse embryos based on limb morphometry. Development, 145, doi:10.1242/dev.154856. 

Richtsmeier, JT and SM Motch Perrine 2018 Craniofacial development, normal and abnormal. In The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology, W Trevathan, editor, John Wiley and Sons, in press.

Lesciotto, K, Y Heuzé, EW Jabs, JM Bernstein, JT Richtsmeier 2018  Choanal atresia and craniosynostosis: development and disease. Plast Reconstr Surg 141(1):156-168. PMID: 29280877; PMCID: PMC5747311. PDF

Joganic, J, KE Willmore, JT Richtsmeier, MC Mahaney, J Rogers, JM Cheverud 2018 Additive genetic variation in the craniofacial skeleton of baboons (genus Papio) and its relationship to body and cranial size. Amer J Phys Anthropol, 165(2): 269-285.

Martínez-Abadías, N, R Mateu, J Sastre, S Motch Perrine, M Yoon, A Robert-Moreno, J Swoger, L Russo, K Kawasaki, JT Richtsmeier, J Sharpe 2018 Quantification of gene expression patterns to reveal the origins of abnormal morphogenesis. eLife 2018;7:e36405 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.36405 (article disseminated to the public as an eLife Digest) [bioRΧiv]. PMCID: PMC6199133


Starbuck JM, Cole TM 3rd, Reeves RH, Richtsmeier JT 2017 The Influence of trisomy 21 on facial form and variability. Am J Med Genet A. 173(3) DOI10.1002/ajmg.a.38464 PMID: 28941128, PMCID: PMC5679727.

Kawasaki, K and JT Richtsmeier 2017 Association of the chondrocranium and dermatocranium in early skull development, in: Percival, CJ and JT Richtsmeier (Eds.), Building Bones: Bone Development and Formation in Anthropology, Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. Pp 52-78.

Kawasaki, K, JT Richtsmeier 2017 Appendix to Chapter 3 in Building Bones: Bone formation and development in anthropology, Percival, CJ and JT Richtsmeier (Eds.), Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. Pp 303-315.

Percival, C.J., K Kawasaki, Y Huang, KM Weiss, EW Jabs, R Li, JT Richtsmeier 2017 The contribution of angiogenesis to variation in bone development and evolution, in: Percival, CJ and JT Richtsmeier(Eds.), Building Bones: Bone Development and Formation in Anthropology, Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–51.

Richtsmeier, JT 2017 Dysmorphology. In Reference module in the Life Sciences, Elsevier. ISBN: 978-0-12-809633-8,

Fish, JL, RC Albertson, MP Harris, S Lozanoff, RS Marcucio, JT Richtsmeier, PA Trainor 2017 The society for craniofacial genetics and developmental biology 39th annual meeting. Am J Med Genet Part A:1-22. PMID: 28168819.

Lee, C, JT Richtsmeier, R Kraft 2017 A computational analysis of bone formation in the cranial vault using a coupled reaction-diffusion-strain model. J Mechanics in Med &Bio, May. NIHMS 853364. Journal of Mech Med Biol, May 2017;

Motch Perrine, SM, T Stecko, R Neuberger, T Ryan, JT Richtsmeier 2017 Integration of brain and skull in prenatal mouse models of Apert and Crouzon syndromes. Frontiers: Human neuroscience, 25July,


Ye, X, A Guilmatre, B Reva, I Peter, Y Heuzé, JT Richtsmeier, DJ Fox, CM Druschel, RJ Goedken, EW Jabs, PA Romitti 2016 Mutation screening of candidate genes in patients with nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis. Plast and Reconstr Surgery, 137(3):952-61. PMCID: PMC4770826  [PDF]

Flaherty, KV, N Singh, JT Richtsmeier 2016 Understanding craniosynostosis as a growth disorder. WIREs Dev Biol 5: 429-459. doi: 10.1002/wdev.227. PMCID: PMC4911263  [PDF].

Taneyhill, L, J Hoover-Fong, S Lozanoff, R Marcucio, JT Richtsmeier, PA Trainor 2016 The society for craniofacial genetics and developmental biology 38th annual meeting. Am J Med Genet Part A 9999A:1–22, DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37651; PMID: 27102868 [PDF].

Baab, KL, P Brown, D Falk, JT Richtsmeier, CF Hildebolt, K Smith, W Jungers 2016 A critical evaluation of the Down syndrome diagnosis for LB1, type specimen of Homo floresiensis. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0155731. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155731; PMID: 27275928, PMCID: PMC4898715  [PDF].

Heuzé, Y, K Kawasaki, T Schwarz, JJ Schoenebeck, JT Richtsmeier 2016 Developmental and evolutionary significance of the zygomatic bone. The anatomical record 299:1616–1630. PMID: 27870340. doi10.1002/ar.23449.

Singh, N, T Dutka, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier 2016 Chronic up-regulation of sonic hedgehog has little effect on postnatal craniofacial morphology of euploid and trisomic mice. Devel dyn 245:114–122.  epub ahead of print doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24361. PMID: 26509735; PMCID: PMC4715749. [PDF].


Weiss, KM, A Buchanan, JT Richtsmeier 2015   How are we made? Even well-controlled experiments show the complexity of our traits. Evol Anthropol 24(4): 130-136. PMID: 26267434 PMCID: PMC4568433  [PDF].

Richtsmeier, JT, MC Jones, S Lozanoff, PA Trainor 2015   The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 37th Annual Meeting, Amer J Med Genet, Part A, Article first published online: 30 MAR 2015; DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.3701 NIJMS ID 679850.  PMID: 25820705  [PDF].

Trainor, PA, JT Richtsmeier 2015   Facing up to the challenges of advancing craniofacial research. Amer J Med Genet, Part A, 2015 Mar 28. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37065. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25820983  [PDF].

Singh, N, T Dutka, B Devenney, K Kawasaki, R Reeves, JT Richtsmeier 2015   Acute upregulation of hedgehog signaling causes differential effects on cranial morphology. Disease models and mechanisms, 8:1-9. doi:10.1242 PMCID: PMC Journal - In Process PMID: 25540129, PMCID: PMC4348564  [PDF].

Lee, C, JT Richtsmeier, RH Kraft 2015   A computational analysis of bone formation in the cranial vault in the mouse. Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, doi:10:3389/fbioe.2015.00024.  PMCID: PMC4365500  [PDF].


Lee, C, JT Richtsmeier, RH Kraft 2014   A multiscale computational model for the growth of the cranial vault in craniosynostosis. Proc of the ASME 2014 Inter Mech Engineer Congress & Exposition, ASME IMECE., doi: 10.1115/IMECE2014-38728. IMECE2014-38728, November, Montreal, Canada. PMCID: PMC4404787  [PDF].

Starbuck, JM, T Dutka, T Ratliff, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier 2014,  Overlapping trisomies for human Chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. Amer J Med Genet Part A, first published online: 04 May 2014. PMID: 24788405, PMCID: PMC4107150  [PDF].

Heuzé Y, G Holmes, I Peter, JT Richtsmeier, EW Jabs 2014   Closing the gap: Genetic and genomic continuum from syndromic to nonsyndromic craniosynostoses. Current genetic medicine reports, 2(3). Published online 18June2014: (DOI) 10.1007/s40142-014-0042-x PMCID: PMC4489147  [PDF].

Heuzé Y, Singh N, Basilico C, Jabs EW, Holmes G, Richtsmeier JT. 2014.  Morphological comparison of the craniofacial phenotypes of mouse models expressing the Apert FGFR2 S252W mutation in neural crest- or mesoderm-derived tissues. Bone, 63:101-109. PMCID: PMC4018479  [PDF].

Motch Perrine, SM, TM Cole, N Martínez-Abadías, K Aldridge, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier  Craniofacial divergence by distinct prenatal growth patterns in Fgfr2 mutant mice. BMC Developmental Biology, 14:8. PMCID: PMC4101838  [PDF].

Heuzé Y, Martínez-Abadías, N., Stella, J. M., Arnaud, E., Collet, C., García Fructuoso, G., Alamar, M., Lo, L.-J., Boyadjiev, S. A., Di Rocco, F. and Richtsmeier, J. T. (2014),  Quantification of facial skeletal shape variation in fibroblast growth factor receptor-related craniosynostosis syndromes. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology., doi: 10.1002/bdra.23228   PMCID: PMC4029055  [PDF].

Percival CJ, Huang Y, Jabs EW, Li R, Richtsmeier 2014  Embryonic Craniofacial Bone Volume and Bone Mineral Density in Fgfr2+/P253R and Nonmutant Mice. Dev Dyn, 243(4): 541-551. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24095. Epub 2014 Feb 7. PMID: 24504751 PMCID: PMC3998671  [PDF]  [Additional Materials].


Percival, CJ, JT Richtsmeier 2013  Angiogenesis and intramembranous osteogenesis. Dev Dyn, 242:909-922. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.23992. PMCID: PMC3803110  [PDF].

Martínez-Abadías,N, Motch, S, T Pankratz,Y Wang, K Aldridge, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier 2013  Tissue specific responses to aberrant FGF signaling in complex head phenotypes. Dev Dyn, 242(1):80-94. doi: 10.1002/ dvdy.23903. PMID: 2317272. PMCID: PMC3556393  [PDF].

Starbuck, JM, TM Cole III, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier 2013  Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2013 Mar 15. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22255. PMCID: PMC3744194  [PDF].

Martínez-Abadías,N, G Holmes, T Pankratz,Y Wang,X Zhou, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier 2013  From shape to cells: mouse models reveal mechanisms altering palate development in Apert syndrome. Disease models and mechanisms, in press doi:10.1242/dmm.010397. PMCID: PMC3634659  [PDF].

Richtsmeier, JT, K Flaherty 2013  Hand in glove: brain and skull in development and dysmorphogenesis. Acta Neuropathol, 125(4), doi 10.1007/s00401-013-1104-y. PMCID: PMC3652528  [PDF].

Hill, CA, N Martínez-Abadías , SM Motch, JR Austin, Y Wang, EW Jabs, JT. Richtsmeier, K Aldridge 2013  Postnatal brain and skull growth in an Apert syndrome mouse model. Amer J Med Genet Part A, in press, doi 10.1002/ajmg.a.35805. PMCID: PMC3606655  [PDF].


Percival, CJ, Y Wang, X Zhou, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier 2012  The effect of a Beare-Stevenson syndrome Fgfr2 Y394C mutation on early craniofacial bone volume and relative bone mineral density in mice. J Anat., 221:434-442.

Justice, CM, G Yagnik, Y Kim, I Peter, EW Jabs, M Erazo, X Ye, L Shi, M L Cunningham, V Kimonis, T Roscioli, SA Wall, AOM Wilkie, J Stoler, JT Richtsmeier, Y Heuzé PA Sanchez-Lara, MF Buckley, CM Druschel, JL Mills, M Caggana, PA Romitti, DM Kay, C Senders, PJ Taub, OD Klein, J Boggan, M Zwienenberg-Lee, C Naydenov, J Kim, AF Wilson, SA Boyadjiev 2012  A genome-wide association study identifies susceptibility loci for non-syndromic sagittal craniosynostosis on chromosomes 20 and 7. Nature genetics

Lambi, A, T Pankratz, C Mundy, M Gannon, M Barbe, JT Richtsmeier, S Popoff 2012  The context-dependent role of connective tissue growth factor in prenatal osteogenesis. Devel Dyn, 241:1944-1959.

Martínez-Abadías,N, P Mitteroecker, TE Parsons, M Esparza, T Sjøvold, C Rolian, JT Richtsmeier, B Hallgrímsson 2012  The developmental basis of quantitative craniofacial variation in humans and mice. Evolutionary Biology. (Published online 20 November 2012)

Wang, Y, X Zhou, K Oberoi, R Phelps, R Couwenhoven, M Sun, A Rezza, G Holmes, CJ Percival, J Friedenthal, P Krejci, JT Richtsmeier, DL Huso, M Rendl, EW Jabs 2012.  p38 Inhibition ameliorates skin and skull abnormalities in Fgfr2 Beare-Stevenson mice. J Clinical Investigation, 122(6):2153-2164. DOI:10.1172/JCI62644


Percival, CJ, JT Richtsmeier 2011   The epigenetics of dysmorphology: craniosynostosis as an example. In Epigenetics, B Hallgrímsson and BK Hall, eds., U of California Press, Berkeley, Pp 377-397  

Martínez-Abadías, N, Y Heuzé Y Wang, EW Jabs, K Aldridge, JT Richtsmeier 2011   FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models. J PLoS ONE 6(10): e26425. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026425

Heuzé Y, N Martínez-Abadías, JM Stella, CW Senders, SA Boyadjiev, L-J Lo, JT Richtsmeier. 2011.  Unilateral and bilateral expression of a quantitative trait: asymmetry and symmetry in coronal craniosynostosis. J Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 314B (1-14). DOI: 10.1002/jez.b.21449

Starbuck, J, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier. 2011.  Morphological Integration of Soft-Tissue Facial Morphology in Down Syndrome and Siblings. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146:560-568  doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21583

Starbuck JM. 2011.  On the Antiquity of Trisomy 21: Moving Towards a Quantitative Diagnosis of Down Syndrome in Historic Material Culture. J Cont Anth. 2(1):61-89  [Download]


Hill C, Vaddi S, Moffitt A, Kane A, Marsh J, Panchal J, Richtsmeier J, Aldridge K. 2010.  Intracranial volume and whole brain volume in infants with unicoronal craniosynostosis. Cleft palate-Craniofacial Journal . 2010 Aug 10.

N Martínez-Abadías, C Percival, K Aldridge, CA Hill, T Ryan, S Sirivunnabood, Y Wang, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier. 2010.  Beyond the closed suture in Apert syndrome mouse models: evidence of primary effects of FGFR2 signaling on facial shape at birth. Dev Dyn . 239:3058-3071.

CC Roseman, KE Willmore, J Rogers, C Hildebolt, BE Sadler, JT Richtsmeier, JM Cheverud. 2010.  Genetic and environmental contributions to variation in baboon cranial morphology. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol . 143:1-12.

HeuzéY, SA Boyadjiev, JL Marsh, AA Kane, E Cherkez, JE Boggan, JT Richtsmeier. 2010.  New insights into the relationship between suture closure and craniofacial dysmorphology in sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis. J Anat . 217:85-96.

Wang Y, M Sun, VL Uhlhorn, X Zhou, I Peter, N Martinez-Abadias, CA Hill, CJ Percival, JT Richtsmeier, DL Huso, EW Jabs. 2010.  Activation of p38 MAPK pathway in the skull abnormalities of Apert syndrome Fgfr2+/P253R mice. BMC Developmental Biology. 10(22).

Aldridge, K, CA Hill, JR Austin, C Perival, N Martinez-Abadias, T Neuberger, Y Wang, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier. 2010.  Brain phenotypes in two FGFR2 mouse models for Apert syndrome. Devel Dyn. 239: 987-997.


Marcus, CL, RJH Smith, LA Mankarious, R Arens, GS Mitchell, RG Elluru, V Forte, S Goudy, EW Jabs, AA Kane, E Katz, D Paydarfar, K Pereira, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier, RL Ruiz, BT Thach, DE Tunkel, JA Whitsett, D Wootton, CJ Blaisdell. 2009. Developmental Aspects of the Upper Airway. Report from an NHLBI Workshop, March, 2009. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. 6:513-520. DOI: 10.1513/pats.200905-024CB

Willmore, KE, CC Roseman, J Rogers, JM Cheverud, JT Richtsmeier. 2009b.  Comparison of Mandibular Phenotypic and Genetic Integration between Baboon and Mouse. Evolutionary Biology. 36: 19-36. doi: 10.1007/s11692-009-9056-9

Willmore, KE, CC Roseman, J Rogers, JT Richtsmeier, JM Cheverud. 2009a.  Genetic Variation in Baboon Craniofacial Sexual Dimorphism. Evolution. 63-3: 799-806.

Richtsmeier JT and VB DeLeon.  2009 Morphological integration of the skull in craniofacial anomalies.  Orthod Craniofac Res, 12:149-58.

Hill CA, T Sussan, RH Reeves, and JT Richtsmeier.  2009 Complex contributions of Ets2 to craniofacial and thymus phenotypes of trisomic “Down Syndrome" mice.   Amer J Med Genet

DeLeon VB and JT Richtsmeier.  2009 Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in sagittal craniosynostosis.  Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal, 46(2):187-196.  doi: 10.1597/08-001.1

Martínez-Abadías N, M Esparza, T Sjøvold, R González-José M Santos, CP Klingenberg and M Hernández.  2009 Heritability of human cranial dimensions: comparing the evolvability of different cranial regions.  Journal of Anatomy, 214:19-35.

Buchanan, AV, S Sholtis, JT Richtsmeier, KM Weiss.  2009 What are genes 'for' or where are traits 'from'? What is the question?.  Bioessays, 31:198-208.


Weinberg S, K Neiswanger, JT Richtsmeier, BS Maher, MP Mooney, MI Siegel, ML Marazita.  2008 Three-dimensional morphometric analysis of craniofacial shape in the unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts: a possible marker for genetic susceptibility.  Amer J Med Genet Part A, 146A(4):409-420.

Hill CA, and JT Richtsmeier.  2008 A quantitative method for the evaluation of three-dimensional structure of temporal bone pneumatization. J Hum Evol, 55(4):682-690.  doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.03.010

Frazier BC, MP Mooney, HW Losken, T Barbano, A Moursi, MI Siegel, JT Richtsmeier.  2008 Comparison of craniofacial phenotype in craniosynostotic rabbits treated with anti-Tgf-ß2 at suturectomy site. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 45(6):571-582.


Willmore KE, NM Young, JT Richtsmeier.  2007   Phenotypic variability: its components, measurement and underlying developmental processes.   Evolutionary Biology, 34(3):99-120. DOI: 10.1007/s11692-007-9008-1

Boyadjiev SA, for the International Craniosynostosis Consortium.  2007 Genetic analysis of non-syndromic craniosynostosis.   Orthod Craniofacial Res, 10:129-137.

Kane AA, VB DeLeon, C Valeri, DB Becker, JT Richtsmeier, L-J Lo.  2007  Preoperative osseous dysmorphology in unilateral complete cleft lip and palate: A quantitative analysis of CT data.   Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 119:1295-1301. doi: 10.1097/01.prs.0000258519.88178.c4

Parsons T, TM Ryan, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier.  2007   Microstructure of trabecular bone in a mouse model for Down syndrome.   Anatomical Record, 290(4):414-421.  ttps://

Aldridge KA, RH Reeves, LE Olson, JT Richtsmeier.  2007  Differential effects of trisomy on brain shape and volume in related aneuploid mouse models.   Amer J Med Genet Part A, 143A:1060-1070.

Hill CA, RH Reeves, JT Richtsmeier.  2007  Effects of aneuploidy on skull growth in a mouse model of Down syndrome.   J Anat, 210(4):394-405.

Starbuck JM, and RE Ward.  2007   The affect of tissue depth variation on craniofacial reconstructions.   Forensic Sci Int, 172:130-136.  DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.01.006

von Cramon-Taubadel N, BC Frazier, M Mirazón Lahr.  2007  The problem of assessing landmark error in geometric morphometrics: methods and modifications.   Amer J Phys Anthropol, 134(1):24-35.


Wang Y, R Xiao, F Yang, BO Karim, AJ Iacovelli, J Cai, CP Lerner, JT Richtsmeier, JM Leszl, CA Hill, K Yu, DM Ornitz, J Elisseeff, DL Huso, EW Jabs.   2005  Abnormalities in cartilage and bone development in the Apert syndrome FGFR2+/S252W mouse. Development, 132:3537-3548. doi: 10.1242/dev.01914

Richtsmeier JT, S Lele, TM Cole III.   2005  An invariant approach to the study of fluctuating asymmetry: developmental instability in a mouse model for Down syndrome. In Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology, RH Tuttle, ed. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers Series, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects. Pp. 187-212.

Richtsmeier JT, TM Cole III, S Lele.   2005 Landmark morphometrics and the analysis of variation. In Variation: A Central Concept in Biology, B Hallgrimsson and BK Hall, eds., Elsevier Academic Press, Boston. Pp 49-68. [PDF]

Aldridge K, AA Kane, JL Marsh, D Govier, JT Richtsmeier.   2005   Relationship of brain and skull in pre- and postoperative sagittal synostosis. J Anat, 206(4):373-385.

Aldridge K, AA Kane, JL Marsh , J Panchal, SA Boyd, P Yan, D Govier, W Ahmad, JT Richtsmeier.   2005   Brain morphology in non-syndromic unicoronal craniosynostosis. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol, 285:690-698.

Aldridge KA, SA Boyadjiev Boyd, GT Capone, VB DeLeon, JT Richtsmeier.   2005   Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images. Amer J Med Genet Part A, 138A:247-253.


Zumpano M, and JT Richtsmeier.  2003  Growth-related shape changes in the fetal craniofacial complex of humans (Homo sapiens) and pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina): A 3D-CT comparative analysis. Amer J Phys Anthropol, 120(4):339-351.

Williams FL, and JT Richtsmeier.  2003 Comparison of mandibular landmarks from computed tomography and 3D digitizer data. Clinical Anatomy, 16:494-500.

Richtsmeier JT.  2003 Growth. In Key Concepts and Approaches in Evolutionary Developmental Biology, BK Hall and W Olson, eds. Harvard University Press.   Pp. 161-168.


Richtsmeier JT, VB DeLeon, SR Lele.  2002 The Promise of Geometric Morphometrics.  Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 45:63-91.

Cole TM, III, S Lele, JT Richtsmeier.  2002 A parametric bootstrap approach to the detection of phylogenetic signals in landmark data. In Morphometrics, Shape, and Phylogenetics, N MacLeod and P Forey, eds. London:Taylor and Francis   Pp. 194-219. 10.1201/9780203165171

Richtsmeier JT, A Zumwalt, E Carlson, CJ Epstein, RH Reeves.  2002  Craniofacial phenotypes in segmentally trisomic mouse models for Down syndrome.  Amer J Med Genet, 107(4):317-324.

Richtsmeier JT.  2002 Cranial Vault Morphology and Growth in Craniosynostoses. In Understanding Craniofacial Anomalies: The Etiopathogenesis of Craniosynostoses and Facial Clefting, MP Mooney and MI Siegel, eds. New York: Wiley-Liss. Pp: 321-341.

Aldridge K, JL Marsh, D Govier, JT Richtsmeier.  2002 Central nervous system phenotypes in craniosynostosis.  J Anat, 201:31-39.


Reeves RH, LL Baxter, JT Richtsmeier.  2001  Too much of a good thing: mechanisms of gene action in Down syndrome.  Trends in Genetics, 17(2):79-84. DOI:

Lele S, and JT Richtsmeier.  2001 An invariant approach to statistical analysis of shapes, Interdisciplinary Studies in Statistics series, Chapman and Hall-CRC Press, London.  [See The Purple Book]

DeLeon VB, M Zumpano, JT Richtsmeier.  2001  The effect of neurocranial surgery on basicranial morphology in isolated sagittal craniosynostosis. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 38(2):134-146.  DOI: 10.1597/1545-1569_2001_038_0134_teonso_2.0.co_2


Fang S, R Srinivasan, R Raghavan, JT Richtsmeier.  2000 Volume morphing and rendering: An integrated approach. Journal of Computer Aided Geometric Design, 17(1):59-81. 10.1016/S0167-8396(99)00039-4

Baxter LL, TH Moran, JT Richtsmeier, J Troncoso, RH Reeves.  2000  Discovery and genetic localization of Down syndrome cerebellar phenotypes using the Ts65Dn mouse. Human Molecular Genetics, 9(2):195-202.

Richtsmeier JT, LL Baxter, RH Reeves.  2000  Parallels of craniofacial maldevelopment in Down syndrome and Ts65Dn mice.  Developmental Dynamics, 217:137-145.<137::AID-DVDY1>3.0.CO;2-N

DeLeon VB, EW Jabs, JT Richtsmeier.  2000  Craniofacial growth: genetic basis and morphogenetic process in craniosynostosis. In Plastic Surgery: Indications, Operations, Outcomes, Achauer et al., eds., Vol. Two, Part 1, Chapter 42, Pp 619-636. Mosby-Yearbook, Inc.


Burrows AM, JT Richtsmeier, MP Mooney, TD Smith, HW Losken, MI Siegel.  1999  Three-dimensional analysis of craniofacial form in a familial rabbit model of nonsyndromic coronal synostosis using Euclidean distance matrix analysis.  Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 36(3):196-206. DOI: 10.1597/1545-1569_1999_036_0196_taocfi_2.3.co_2

Zumpano MP, BS Carson, JL Marsh, CA VanderKolk, JT Richtsmeier.  1999  Three-dimensional morphological analysis of isolated metopic synostosis.   The Anatomical Record, 256:177-188.<177::AID-AR8>3.0.CO;2-Q


Richtsmeier JT, TM Cole III, CJ Valeri, G Krovitz, S Lele.  1998  Pre-operative morphology and development in sagittal synostosis.  J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol, 18(2):64-78.  [Abstract]

Cole TM, III, and JT Richtsmeier.  1998  A simple method for visualization of influential landmarks when using Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis.   Amer J Phys Anthropol, 107(3):273-283.<273::AID-AJPA4>3.0.CO;2-1

Valeri C, TM Cole III, S Lele, JT Richtsmeier.  1998  Capturing data from three-dimensional surfaces using fuzzy landmarks.  Amer J Phys Anthropol, 107(1):113-124.;2-O


Dufresne C, and JT Richtsmeier.  1995  Interaction of craniofacial dysmorphology, growth, and the prediction of surgical outcome.   J Craniofac Surg, 6(4):270-281. DOI: 10.1097/00001665-199507000-00003


Dufresne CR, R Raghavan, S Fang, JT Richtsmeier.  1995  Computerized dynamic skeletal modeling for craniofacial surgical planning: new tools to predict growth following surgery. In Craniofacial Surgery: Proceedings of the VIth Congress of the International Society of Craniofacial Surgery, D Marchac, ed. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna. Pp.31-32.

Richtsmeier JT, C Paik, P Elfert, TM Cole III, HR Dahlman.  1995  Precision, repeatability and validation of the localization of cranial landmarks using computed tomography scans.   Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 32(3):217-227.  DOI: 10.1597/1545-1569_1995_032_0217_pravot_2.3.co_2 

Lele S, and JT Richtsmeier.  1995  Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis: confidence intervals for form and growth comparison.   Amer J Phys Anthropol, 98(1):73-86.


Richtsmeier JT, GH Sack Jr., HM Grausz, LC Cork.  1994  Cleft palate with autosomal recessive transmission in Brittany Spaniels.  Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 31(5):364-371. DOI: 10.1597/1545-1569_1994_031_0364_cpwart_2.3.co_2

Ohman J, and JT Richtsmeier.  1994  Perspectives on craniofacial growth.  Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 21(4):489-499. [Abstract]


Richtsmeier JT, and A Walker.  1993  Morphometric analysis of facial growth in Homo erectus. In The Nariokotome Homo erectus skeleton, RE Leakey and A Walker, eds., Harvard University Press. Pp. 391-410.

Richtsmeier JT, JM Cheverud, SM Danahey, BC Corner, S Lele.  1993  Sexual dimorphism of ontogeny in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).   J Hum Evol, 25(1):1-30.

Richtsmeier JT, and S Lele.  1993  A coordinate-free approach to the analysis of growth patterns: models and theoretical considerations.   Biological Reviews, 68(3):381-411.

Richtsmeier JT, BD Corner, HM Grausz, JM Cheverud, S Danahey.  1993  The role of postnatal growth pattern in the production of facial morphology.   Systematic Biology, 42(3):307-330. 

Richtsmeier JT.  1993  Beyond morphing: visualization to predict a child's skull growth.  Advanced Imaging, 8(7):24-27.

Corner BD and JT Richtsmeier.  1993  Cranial growth and growth dimorphism in Ateles geoffroyi.   Amer J Phys Anthropol, 92(3):371-394.

Wong L, JT Richtsmeier, PN Manson.  1993  Craniofacial growth following rigid fixation: suture excision, miniplating, and microplating.   J Craniofac Surg, 4(4):234-244.  [Abstract]


Dufresne CR, B Corner, JT Richtsmeier.  1992  Categorization of craniofacial dysmorphology for the prediction of surgical outcome. In Craniofacial Surgery: Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Society of Cranio-maxillo-facial surgery, Monduzzi Editore, Bologna, Italy, Pp. 41-45.

Lele S, and JT Richtsmeier.  1992  On comparing biological shapes: Detection of influential landmarks.  Amer J Phys Anthropol, 87(1):49-65.

Corner BD, and JT Richtsmeier.  1992  Cranial growth in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus): a quantitative analysis using three dimensional coordinate data.   Amer J Phys Anthropol, 87(1):67-81.

Corner BD, and JT Richtsmeier.  1992  Experiments in nature: premature unicoronal cranial synostosis in mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata).   Cleft Palate-Craniofacial J, 29(2):143-151.

Richtsmeier JT, JM Cheverud, S Lele.  1992  Advances in anthropological morphometrics.   Ann Rev Anthropol, 21:231-253.

Richtsmeier JT.  1992  Evolutionary biology and development and dysmorphology. In Complex Facial Problems, CR Dufresne and B Carson, eds., Churchill-Livingstone, New York. Pp. 13-26.

Corner BD, SL Lele, JT Richtsmeier.  1992  Measuring precision of three-dimensional landmark data.   J Quantitative Anthrop, 3(4):347-359.

Kaye CI, AO Martin, BR Rollnick, K Nagatoshi, J Israel, M Hermanoff, B Tropea, JT Richtsmeier, NE Morton.  1992  Oculoauriculovertebral anomaly: segregation analysis.   Amer J Med Genet, 43(6):913-917.